The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They’re located in the pelvis on both sides of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce eggs; normally the egg production is alternated between the right and left ovary. They also produce hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac called a cyst will develop on one or both ovaries. 5-15% of women have ovarian cysts and in most cases they are painless and cause no symptoms.
During a woman’s menstrual cycle, an egg grows in a sac called a follicle. This sac is located inside the ovaries. In most cases, this follicle or sac breaks open and releases an egg and its remnant is called corpus luteum, but if the follicle doesn’t break open to release the egg the fluid can accumulate inside the follicle to form a follicular cyst .
Corpus luteum typically dissolves about 14 days after releasing an egg (if fertilization doesn’t take place). But sometimes the corpus luteum doesn’t dissolve in time and bleeds inside to form corpus luteum cyst. They can also be associated with pregnancy during the first trimester.
These develop in conditions that produce high levels of a hormone called HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) like twin pregnancy and molar pregnancy.
Most time women with polycystic ovarian syndrome don’t ovulate and the fluid accumulate in the follicle to form many cysts in the ovary.
These are cysts whose cavities are lined by endometrial cells. Endometrial cells are the cells which line the uterine cavity which women shed during menstrual bleeding.
These are type cysts in the ovary capsule which is covered with a thick layer of leathery skin. They can grow on one or both ovaries and usually contain hair, nails, teeth, eyes and sebaceous glands. Most do not cause symptoms, however if the tumor grows it can result in complications.
Often times, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms. However, symptoms can appear as the cyst grows. Symptoms may depend on the type of the cysts and they may include:
Most ovarian cysts are harmless and are called functional cysts, they naturally resolve on their own without treatment. These cysts cause little if any symptoms. However, sometimes the following complications can occur with them:
Although uncommon, ovarian torsion accounts for nearly 3 percent of emergency gynecologic surgeries.
Abdominal ultrasound scan/ transvaginal ultrasound scan is performed to determine the following