Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition, where the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart (coronaries) are narrowed due to plague formation. Plague ischolesterol deposition that clogs the walls of the coronaries over time and this condition affects patients who are the elderly
The major blood vessels that supply the heart (coronary arteries) struggle to send enough blood, oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.
There are two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left main coronary artery both originate from the root of the aorta.
The right coronary artery emerges from the anterior ascending aorta and supplies blood primarily to the right atrium, right ventricle. coronary right coronary artery supplies blood to the right ventricle and the SA (sinoatrial) and AV (atrioventricular) nodes, which regulate the heart rhythm.
The left main coronary artery supplies blood to the left side of the heart muscle (the left ventricle and left atrium). The left main coronary divides into branches: The left anterior descending artery branches off the left coronary artery and supplies blood to the front of the left side of the heart.
The chief symptoms of coronary artery disease are a nature of pain called angina which sometimes radiates to the left shoulder, neck or the arm.
Stable angina pain is predictable and usually similar to previous episodes of chest pain. The chest pain typically lasts a short time, perhaps five minutes or less.
These are the most common symptoms of angina:
Coronary artery disease starts when fats, cholesterols and other substances collect on the inner walls of the heart arteries. This condition is called atherosclerosis. The buildup is called plaque. Plaque can cause the arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, followed by bleeding and eventually leading to formation of a blood clot which results in heart attack.
Besides high cholesterol, damage to the coronary arteries may be caused by:
Coronary artery disease risk factors include:
The chest pain that occurs with angina can make doing some activities, such as walking, uncomfortable. However, the most dangerous complication is a heart attack.
Test to help diagnose or monitor coronary artery disease include:
Parts of the heart that move weakly may be caused by a lack of oxygen or a heart attack. This may be a sign of coronary artery disease or other conditions.
If you have an artery blockage that needs treatment, a balloon on the tip of the catheter can be inflated to open the artery. A mesh tube (stent) is typically used to keep the artery open.
Having too many lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) in your blood can lead to buildup in your blood vessels and arteries, which can cause damage and increase your risk of cardiovascular problems. People who have too much cholesterol are at risk of cardiovascular diseases like heart disease, heart attack (myocardial infarction) and stroke.